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Cloak and Dagger Games

Cloak & Dagger

Cloak & Dagger is a new class of potential attacks affecting Android devices. These attacks allow a malicious app to completely control the UI feedback loop and take over the device — without giving the user a chance to notice the malicious activity. These attacks only require two permissions that, in case the app is installed from the Play Store, the user does not need to explicitly grant and for which she is not even notified. Our user study indicates that these attacks are practical. These attacks affect all recent versions of Android (including the latest version, Android 7.1.2), and they are yet to be fixed.

TL;DR — Main Takeaways

  • We uncover a series of vulnerabilities and design shortcomings affecting the Android UI.
  • These attacks abuse one or both of the SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW (“draw on top”) and BIND_ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE (“a11y”).
  • If the malicious app is installed from the Play Store, the user is not notified about the permissions and she does not need to explicitly grant them for the attacks to succeed. In fact, in this scenario, “draw on top” is automatically granted, and this permission is enough to lure the user into unknowingly enable a11y (through clickjacking).
  • The possible attacks include advanced clickjacking, unconstrained keystroke recording, stealthy phishing, the silent installation of a God-mode app (with all permissions enabled), and silent phone unlocking + arbitrary actions (while keeping the screen off). See the full list below.
  • These attacks are practical: we performed a user study (with 20 human subjects), and no user understood what happened.
  • Most of these attacks are due to design issues, and they are thus challenging to prevent. In fact, one may say that some of these functionality work “as intended”; Nonetheless, this work shows that this functionality can be abused.
  • To date, all these attacks are still practical (see “Which versions of Android are affected” and “Responsible Disclosure” below).

List of Attacks

Attacks that abuse the “draw on top” permission:

  • Context-aware clickjacking & Context hiding: two techniques that make luring the user to enable the accessibility service practical, even when the latest security mechanisms (e.g., “obscured flag”) are correctly implemented and enabled. (Note: others have identified ways to use clickjacking to get a11y. See “FAQ” below.)
  • Invisible Grid Attack, allowing unconstrained keystroke recording, including password, private messages, etc.

Attacks that abuse “accessibility service” permission:

  • Unconstrained keystroke recording, including passwords. According to the documentation, this should not be possible (See “security note” here)
  • Security PIN stealing
  • Device unlock through PIN injection + perform arbitrary actions while keeping the screen off!
  • Stealing two-factor authentication tokens (SMS-based, Google Authenticator, and other app-based tokens)
  • Ad hijacking
  • Web exploration

Attacks that abuse both permissions:

  • Silent installation of God-mode app (with all permissions enabled)
  • Stealthy phishing (for which the user finds herself logged in, as she would expect)

Which versions of Android are affected?

Here is the current status (as of June 19th, 2017). Previous versions are very likely to be vulnerable as well.

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Invisible Grid Attack

Context-aware/hiding Clickjacking + Silent God-mode Install Attack

Stealthy Phishing Attack

The Team

  • Yanick Fratantonio (@reyammer), University of California, Santa Barbara (soon at EURECOM!)
  • Chenxiong Qian, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Simon Pak Ho Chung, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Wenke Lee, Georgia Institute of Technology

You can reach us by sending an email to team@cloak-and-dagger.org


Cloak and Dagger: From Two Permissions to Complete Control of the UI Feedback Loop
Yanick Fratantonio, Chenxiong Qian, Simon P. Chung, Wenke Lee.

  • In the Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (S&P), San Jose, CA, May 2017.
    [PDF] [Slides] [Talk] Distinguished Practical Paper Award!
  • Black Hat USA, Las Vegas, NV, July 2017.
    [Black Hat White Paper] [Slides] [Talk]

Please use the following bibtex entry to cite our work:

Responsible Disclosure

We responsibly disclosed our findings to Google’s Android security team. A timeline of the disclosure steps and responses from Google are posted here (we will keep this updated as time passes):

  • August 22nd, 2016 — We opened several issues on the bug tracker for the Android Open Source Project (AOSP).
  • August 31st, 2016 — Android security team sets severity as “Moderate” for one of the bugs (“draw on top” → unconstrained keystroke recording).
  • September 30th, 2016 — Android security team marks one of the reported bugs (“a11y” → unconstrained keystroke recording + leaking security PIN + unlocking device while keeping the screen off) as “work as intended”.
  • October 10th, 2016 — We follow up pointing out that the Accessibility Service’s documentation states that a11y should not be able to access passwords (see “security note”), and that a11y should not be able to unlock the device and perform arbitrary actions while keeping the screen off.
  • October 13th, 2016 — Android security team states that “The password will be repeated if the user explicitly turns that on in settings under Settings → Accessibility → Speak passwords. The option is off by default. If the user explicitly enables this feature, it is not a security vulnerability.”
  • October 14th, 2016 — We follow up clarifying that our attack works even without this feature (In fact, our report does not even mention that.)
  • October 18th, 2016 — Android security team marks this bug as “High severity”.
  • November 28th, 2016 — Android security team downgrades this bug as “not a security issue” and marks it as “Won’t Fix (Intended Behavior)” because “limiting those services would render the device unusable”.
  • December 19th, 2016 — A draft of our IEEE S&P’17 paper is shared with Adrian Ludwig, director of Android Security.
  • March 15th, 2017 — We follow up, pointing out that the documentation states otherwise. We also follow up on all the other bugs we opened, asking for a status update.
  • May 3rd, 2017 — We follow up a second time asking for a status update for the bugs we reported.
  • May 4th, 2017 — Android security team keeps our a11y findings as “won’t fix”, but they state they will update the documentation. We did not receive updates about the other bugs we reported.
  • May 8th, 2017 — We have a telco with the anti-malware and a11y Google teams during which we thoroughly discussed all the details of our research.
  • May 19th, 2017 — The a11y team confirms the a11y-related issues we reported as “won’t fix”.
  • May 22nd, 2017 — This website and our research paper at IEEE S&P are made public.
  • Current — All the attacks discussed by this work are still practical, even with latest version of Android (Android 7.1.2, with security patches of June 5th installed).

Frequently Asked Questions

Press Coverage

©2017 all rights are reserved to the respective authors.

Cloak and Dagger – Effect | Epic Seven

This page lists the Effect of the Skill Cloak and Dagger in the game Epic Seven (Epic 7). Read on for information on the Skill Enhance for Cloak and Dagger, and which Heroes can learn the Skill Cloak and Dagger.

List of Contents

Cloak and Dagger – Effect



This Skill doesn’t Awaken.

Skill Enhance

Heroes who learn Cloak and Dagger

Epic Seven Related Links


The Like Feature

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Cloak and Dagger – Effect

Walkthrough Menu

Tier List


  • Story
  • Abyss
  • Hunt
  • Automaton Tower
  • Labyrinth


By Grade

By Element

By Class


Beginner Tips



  • 1 Best Hero Tier List
  • 2 A Song for Everybody – Rating an.
  • 3 Nytros of Disillusion – Skills a.
  • 4 Best Use of Skystone
  • 5 Improving the Sanctuary
  • See more

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Cloak and Dagger Games

Please be sure to check out the Museum of the Game’s and Arcadia’s new 2-minute creative video:

Class: Wide Release
Genre: Scrolling Fighter

  • Orientation: Horizontal
  • Type: Raster: Standard Resolution
  • CRT: Color

Conversion Class: unique

Number of Simultaneous Players: 1
Maximum number of Players: 2
Gameplay: Alternating
Control Panel Layout: Single Player

  • Joystick: 8-way [Move]
  • Joystick: 8-way [Shoot]
  • Buttons: 1 [Igniter]

Sound: Amplified Mono (one channel)

Click here to contribute another image.

Cloak & Dagger Description

Cloak & Dagger was produced by Atari in 1983.

Atari released 139 different machines in our database under this trade name, starting in 1972.

Other machines made by Atari during the time period Cloak & Dagger was produced include Major Havoc, Tollian Web, Crystal Castles, Firebeast aka Dragon Master, Pole Position II, Quantum, Akka Arrh, Liberator, Runaway, and Missile Command 2.

Agent X must progress through a series of floors to retrieve a set of stolen plans and destroy Dr. Boom’s underground bomb factory. Avoid the explosives, bomb converters, forklifts, robot guards, acid pits, and death-ray shooting eyeballs. The game was featured in the motion picture of the same name.

Cloak & Dagger – KLOV/IAM 5 Point User Score: 3.14 (3 votes)

Personal Impressions Score: 3.20

Overall ‘Like’: 4.50
Fun (Social): 4.50
Fun (Solo): 3.33
Collector Desire: 3.50

Technical Impressions Score: 4.13

Gameplay: 5.00
Graphics: 4.00
Originality: 4.00
Sound/Music: 3.50

Personal Impressions and Technical Impressions each account for half of the total score. Within the Personal Impressions category, “Like” carries a little more weight than the other factors.

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Cabinet Information

Cabinet Style Weights and Measures


Game Introduction

At this point, however, the game is only half over. You then must guide Agent X all the way back up to the surface. There are new obstacles and opponents to deal with, and every level has a huge hole in the middle where the bomb exploded. Once the hero has made it all the way out, the screen shows a quick glimpse of the “top secret” plans and the game is over. You also receive 1 free credit after you are finished viewing the plans.

VAPS Arcade/Coin-Op Cloak & Dagger Census

Common – There are 44 known instances of this machine owned by Cloak & Dagger collectors who are active members. Of these, 12 of them are original dedicated machines, 22 of them are conversions in which game circuit boards (and possibly cabinet graphics) have been placed in (and on) another game cabinet, and 10 of them are only circuit boards which a collector could put into a generic case if desired.

Wanted – Popular – There are 11 active VAPS members currently looking for Cloak & Dagger.

This game ranks a 13 on a scale out of 100 (100 = most often seen, 1=least common) in popularity based on census ownership records.

This game ranks a 18 on a scale out of 100 (100 = most often wanted, 1=least common) in popularity based on census want list records.

Rarity and Popularity independently are NOT necessarily indications of value. [More Information]

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